Introduction

The database comprises a system of a total of 1,344 categories with 6,400 Buddhist or Buddhist-related headwords on 1800 sheets [ranging from vol.17 to vol. 19] covering 8 major branches dealing with geographical regions × 12 mid-level branches on the ideology of each era × 14 minor branches of keywords [70 subordinate keywords] ▪ This project aims to publish a total of 150,000 headwords in a total of 20 volumes together with one supplementary volume and an index making a total of 22 volumes. At present volumes 1 - 17 have been published (and vol. 18 is in the process of being published). ▪ This project is limited to the 17th to 19th volumes of the encyclopedia in accordance with the NRF application regulations applied at the time of the proposal in 2014, but together with the manuscript writing, compiling, editing and publishing of the work [27,000 items 60,000 sheets], database work [6,500 items 18,000 sheets] was also carried out. ▪ This project consists of the following: ▪ The Kasan Buddhist Encyclopedia contains the world’s highest number of headwords of any such publication in the 2,500 years of Buddhist history; ▪ It is the first minutely-detailed set of general Buddhist terms and Korean Buddhist terms in the 1700 years of Korean Buddhist history ▪ This project started in 1982 with the goal of opening up a new horizon for the research tradition of Korean Buddhism and the humanities that reflects the research results of world Buddhism and has now reached its thirty-sixth year. ▪ In order to promote a comprehensive understanding of Buddhist thought and culture, the Kasan Buddhist Encyclopedia has developed into an encyclopedia that includes not only original Buddhist terms but also various forms of vernacular or newly created Buddhist cultural terms. The aim of this approach is to understand both the specificity and the universality of Buddhist culture ▪ Based on Koreans’ understanding of Buddhism in particular, it is possible to find out and organize as much as possible the items related to the ideological and cultural aspects of Korean Buddhism that have become settled in the process of enculturation over 1,700 years, thus promoting a wide and deep understanding of and pride in our culture, while also giving rise to a love of mankind abroad through a universal understanding of the Buddhist culture. ▪ In order to achieve these goals, a wide range of items were searched for, selected, and recorded. In addition to the Korean alphabetical order of the headwords, the practical Korean alphabetization in the contents means that the dictionary can be easily used by anyone. ▪ Due to the inclusion of languages used by the Buddhist sphere such as literary Sinitic, Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan, the utility of the encyclopedia is greatly enhanced. ▪ At the same time specialized terms in literary Sinitic, Sanskrit and Pali taken from original examples from the Tripitaka and other ancient texts have been utilized to help researchers acquire a deeper understanding of Buddhist terms. ▪ The encyclopedia may be used as a reference for more than 30,000 kinds of primary terms (20,000 items from the Sanskrit classics, Pali classics, the Tibetan Tripitaka, the Goryeo Tripitaka, 24 other kinds of Tripitaka, the Complete Works of Korean Buddhism, and Euro-America Buddhist works) In addition, it facilitates the understanding of the terms by the reader by providing precise documentation. ▪ As the most outstanding Buddhist reference work it has set a new benchmark. (e.g. the definition for Buddha nature [Bulseong] cites examples from such works as Yugarongi [Commentaries on the Yogac񊂊rabh񊡥mi] by Dullyun and Geumgang sammae gyeongnon [Commentary on the Geumgang sammae gyeong] by Won Hyo) ▪ The encyclopedia utilizes a comprehensive narrative system encompassing the change of historical ideologies (original Buddhism - Nik񊂊ya Buddhism - Mahayana Buddhism - Esoteric Buddhism - Zen Buddhism) and regional changes (ranging from India to South East Asia - Tibet - Northeast Asia [China, Korea, and Japan as well as the United States and Europe] to promote an encyclopedic and specialist understanding of Buddhism. ▪ Related items and related terms such as, main items, and branch items were systematically linked to promote links of interest and an integrated understanding of Buddhist terms. [See figure below] ▪ In particular, rather than authors describing their personal opinion of an item, a variety of examples and references have been utilized to secure a world-class dictionary-based system for consultation in the present circumstances. To expand the horizons of the reader a number of features have been included to make the presentation of multiple items of information possible. ▪ We have referred to all existing Buddhist dictionaries (Japanese, Sri Lankan, German, and English) and have revised existing research results to incorporate the largest number of headings in any Buddhist encyclopedia in Korea and abroad. ▪ Comprehensive information was acquired and various points of view are described so as to provide an essential dictionary for all scientific researchers that goes beyond the general humanities such as literature, history, philosophy, religion, literature, and iconography. ▪. Especially, as a result of the creation of the DB, the main headings are divided into the eight major regions of Buddhism [Korea, India, East, South, Central Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Modern Buddhist studies in Europe], 12 broad headings [ancient. medieval, pre-modern, and modern times, the early masters, the Abidharma Sect, Banya junggwan (contemplation of the middle-way prajna), Gusa yusik (considering deeply consciousness only), Buddhist logic, Mahayana, Pure Land, and Tantric Buddhism, and Seon] which were further divided into 14 different areas (teachings, language, bodhisattvas, monasteries, historical personages, monastic communities, ritual, Tripitaka, circulation of translations, monastic literature, art and architecture, music and dance, natural features and local legends). These were widely based on a 1,344-item classification system. ▪ Following the printed book, various fields including [explanatory notes] [reference works] [special characters] [illustrations] [tables] are provided with carefully computerized text. ▪ After the publication of the 22 volumes according to the original plan from 2022, we intend to implement the Data Base project. Manuscript writing, compiling, editing, production and printing alone have taken over 36 years. Consequently a limited data base project is being carried out based on volume 17 to volume 19 and once it is completed we intend to develop and expand the database.

Expect Effect / Research Utilization

Buddhism encompasses the ancient traces of 2,600 years of India, 1,700 years of transmission to the Korean peninsula, as well as 300 years of modern Buddhist studies of modern and contemporary Indian and Buddhist societies, along with the study of Sanskrit language, the North Indian and Tibetan languages, and the languages of Central Asia, Pali, South Asia, and the literary Sinitic sphere of China, Korea and Japan. The Kasan Encyclopedia of Buddhism compilation is the first Korean attempt at collecting Buddhist information of from such a wide range of sources. Now the revival of the humanities through utilizing its vast memory store and epic narratives has become a national task. The Pali Tripitaka, Sanskrit and Tibetan Buddhism classics, as well as the 25 different Tripitaka in Chinese characters and 400 Buddhist monographs handed down in East Asia, are a collection of memories that are the most magnificent and eternal inheritance of mankind. In particular, the Tripitaka not only fuses the philosophical origins of the mythical legacies and meaning of human beings before the 6th century BC, when Buddhism emerged beyond the intrinsic tradition of Buddhism alone, after AD 1 for over 2,000 years of adversity and the translation of texts and the compilation of the Tripitaka are condensed by the difference of time and space occupied by the subjects. This unique Buddhist heritage of public tradition and memory comprises an important part of the expanding galaxy of human heritage. The problem is that all of these traditional heritages have been classified by ourselves into classical heritages and classical languages (such as Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, and Literary Sinitic) since the modern era, and have been stripped of their ties with the present. The fatal consequence of amnesia of the past is not to forget the past, but to prevent the future from going forward. In order to be able to encounter the meanings hidden in the totality of the accomplishments and knowledge our forerunners, such as Yongsu, Wonhyo, and Ilyeon, and in order for our private space to expand into infinite time and space, we need to know the language and meanings of their world. Among the core aims of the foundational research work for the Buddhist Encyclopedia is that it should be completed as a dictionary for instrumental learning. Japan and Taiwan have already published a certain scale of Buddhist dictionaries in the East Asian region based on Chinese monographs. Typical examples are Japan’s Monogatari Buddhist Dictionary (7,136 head words, 1936), Taiwan’s Foguang dacidian (22,800 head words, 1988). This compilation work is the first Buddhist encyclopedic dictionary in Korean and has 150,000 headings including Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, and literary Sinitic. It has collected the most Buddhist headings of any such collection in the world. The Kasan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, which has been published with the most comprehensive data and multiple view-points in all fields of the essentials of humanities and other scientific research and writings by members of the general public in fields such as religion, history, philosophy, bibliography, and literature, provides an abundance of instrumental etymologies for a broad range of reasoning that encompasses all sciences. On the other hand, the excellent number of characteristics and the outstanding work results in an open dictionary centered on examples, such as thoroughly providing interpretive texts and original texts of the Tripitaka that leave the horizon of interpretation to the reader, have already been highly regarded as a leading model of foundational research and dictionary work. Since the publication of the first issue of the project in 1999, the project has donated newly published volumes of the encyclopedia to 1,000 regular subscribing members such as academic circles, academics, research organizations, museums, libraries, and around 500 domestic and overseas students. Up to its 17th year newly published volumes are regularly donated (90%) or purchased (10%) annually to East Asian research institutes and researchers (200 sites), and are actively accepted in overseas research sites. It is expected that the meaningful headwords acquired from both inside and outside of Buddhism will be expanded into a wider space and more unlimited time with the DB work to be completed in the present part of this project. It is hoped that this task will contributes to opening the closed past and connecting it to the boundless future.

Project Name : Basic Research Support for Foundational Human/Social Science Researches
Research Title : Compilation of the Buddhist Encyclopedia Kasan Bulgyo Daesarim [ KRM Task Information ]
Chief of Research :
Research Institution : KASAN INSTITUTE OF BUDDHIST CULTURE
Research Period : 3 Years (SEPTEMBER 01, 2014 - AUGUST 31, 2017)